Lesson Plan : State Changes With Chocolate

Teacher Name:
 Nadia Varano
 Grade 5

 Strand: Understanding Matter and Energy Topic: Properties Of and Changes In Matter
 Materials can exist in different states--solid, liquid, and gas. Some common materials, can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling. Students will learn about solids, liquids, and gases by making chocolate candy. Vocabulary: solid, liquid, gas, condensation, evaporation, boiling
 Overall Expectations: 1.Conduct investigations that explore the properties of matter and changes in matter. 2.Demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter, changes of state, and physical and chemical change. Specific Expectations: - Follow established safety procedures for working with heating appliances and hot materials. - Measure temperature and mass, using appropriate instruments - Use scientific inquiry/experimentation skills to investigate changes of state and changes in matter. - Use a variety of forms to communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes. - Identify properties of solids, liquids and gases. - Explain changes in states of matter. - Describe physical changes in matter as changes that are reversible. Cross curricular - Language:
 At the conclusion of the lesson, students will be able to:� Understand that not only water can change state from a liquid to a solid� Be able to identify a solid� Predict what will happen when a solid is heated, or explain how to make a solid become a liquid� Predict what will happen when a liquid is cooled, or explain how to make a liquid a solid� Understand the concept of a mold and predict what shape the chocolate will take when it is finally cool enough to eat
 Chocolate bars, powdered drink mix, cacao beans, any visuals of chocolate factories, chocolate chips. Observation sheets with area for drawing their observation diagram. Intructions on how to melt chocolate. Area for written conclusion (see Appendix A for handout. Pencils, pencil crayons, ruler. Paper towels. Beaker, burner. Resources: video
 Review terms solid, liquid and gas as forms of water (introduced in earlier lesson). Ask if water is the only thing that can change from a solid to a liquid and back again or from a liquid to a gas and back again. Ask students to give examples of other substances that can change states. Review the differences between physical and chemical changes. Ask students for any changes that they may know of that occur on a daily basis. Ask students what they know about chocolate. Hold up a piece of chocolate and ask the students if they think science is involved in the making of chocolate. Show students clip �Hershey Chocolate Factory� http://www.hersheys.com/discover/tour_video.asp Discuss what they learned from the video.
 � Ask the students to identify the chocolate as a solid, liquid or gas.� Ask them how we can convert it into a liquid.� Tell students we will be making our own chocolate shapes and that Introduce the experiment and its purpose .Go over the safety rules for a proper scientific experiment processExplain their task; As a class, develop a question and hypothesis for this experiment. Write these out on chart paper and post them in the room near to the scientific inquiry process sheet so students are able to make a connection to what they are doing in this experiment. 1. Review the scientific inquiry process. This information is already displayed on chart paper and hung in the classroom, as we have used this process before performing past experiments. Go over and explain the steps in relation to this experiment: i. posing a question (e.g., What will happen to the bean?) ii. developing a hypothesis (e.g., As a class, we think that�will happen to the bean) iii. designing experiment collecting and interpreting data
 � Divide students into groups of 4 or 5, provide them with materials � Show the students the double boiler and explain how it works, reviewing evaporation and condensation and explaining that the water condensing on the bottom of the top pan heats it evenly so that the chocolate won�t burn. Also warn students that if they do this at home they have to be careful not to get any water in the melted chocolate or it won�t harden - correctly. � Introduce the molds and ask the students what will happen if the melted chocolate is pored into the mold. � Ask the students how we can make the liquid chocolate into a solid. Then ask them if they can think of a way to do this fast (if no one has any ideas ask leading questions to get them to say refrigerator or freezer or just suggest this). � Place the chocolate into the double boiler and stir as it melts. � Ask the students to predict how long it will take the chocolate to melt. � Place the molds on the waxed paper and allow the students to decorate some molds be putting a thin layer of sprinkles in the bottom of the mold. It is best to only have a few students do this at once and then to mark which student decorated which mold. In the mean time, the other students can be writing a recipe card explaining the procedures for making chocolate and making sure they use their science vocabulary. � Once all the molds are decorated, spoon chocolate into the molds and place into the freezer. � Check the molds in half an hour to an hour depending on size. � Show the solid chocolate to the students and hand out their decorated pieces in bags that they can give to their families along with their cards. Fill in observation sheet as they go along. Record temperatures. Discuss why this event occurred
 AccommodationsELL and Exceptional (lack of focus and writing skills) Students:� Environmento Buddy ELL/LD students with higher learner in same group; allow higher learner to assist ELL/LD students with observations� Contento Post diagrams with words of what each component of the experiment is (i.e. a picture of a lima bean with its name attached to it) so ELL students are aware of the picture/word associationo Clearly demonstrate the expectations for each step of the experiment for ELL/LD students � Processo Allow LD students to use the computer to type out observations to go with their 3diagrams/drawingso Have a self-regulation strategy set out with the LD students to ensure that they are staying focused on the task at hand o Encourage speech repetition and word association from ELL students to help them bring meaning to words� Producto Allow for less written work and more diagrams/drawings from ELL/LD students. Have them focus on drawing diagrams to represent their observations. Some text is expected but ensure that they are demonstrating the changes in the bean through their diagramso Provide ELL/LD students with extra time to complete their observations and final conclusion.- Student with learning disability:� Allow their written assignment to be shorter� Allow them to type up their paragraphs on the computer- ELL students:� Have pictures associated with each vocabulary word- Gifted Learners:� In stead of having student write the 2 descriptions, have
Checking For Understanding:
 Students will be assessed in a variety of forms. On-going teacher observation will determine how well students are working within their observation groups as a demonstration of teamwork ability. To support this, students will also complete a peer evaluation for their group members (see Appendix C). These assessment notes are not to be part of the student�s rubric mark, but rather will go toward their work habits/learning skills assessment. Students will primarily be assessed according the rubric as set out prior to the experiment (see Appendix D). Students will be given the rubric at the beginning stages of this lesson so they are aware of what is expected of them. This rubric assesses their concluding descriptive paragraph as it relates to both the Science & Technology and Language curricula, as outlined above. Students will review their observations at the end of the observation period and arrive at their own conclusions based on the notes and diagrams they have taken. Students will write up a descriptive paragraph outlining what happened to their bean over the growth period, what effects light, air, water, space had on the growth of their bean, what stage their plant is in according to its life cycle, etc (see �Discussion Questions to Consider in Conclusion� below). Before assigning this, make students aware of the assessment criteria involved in this conclusion. In addition to the Science and Technology curriculum expectations, students will be also assessed on the writing quality of their concluding paragraph according to the Ontario Language curriculum (Overall Expectation: (1) generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience; and Specific Expectations (1.1) identify the topic, purpose, audience, and form for writing (e.g., a scientific explanation demonstrating the life cycle of a plant, for a peer group); (1.6) determine whether the ideas and information they have gathered are relevant and adequate for the purpose, and gather new material if necessary).
 Clean up.
Teacher Reflections:
 Did this lesson plan succeed in meeting the curriculum expectations as laid out above?� What went worked well in this lesson plan? What did not work well? How could this lesson be altered to ensure success? What further accommodations could be made for ELL/LD students in the class for this and future lessons? Did the students enjoy this lesson? Were they engaged? Was there evidence of connections made? What went right, what did not work, and what can be improved upon.

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