Lesson Plan : DNA and protein synthesis

Teacher Name:
 M. Winter
Grade:
 Grade 9-10
Subject:
 Science

Topic:
 DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis
Content:
 Subject Matter: Components and function of DNA, RNA and proteins Key Terms: chromosome DNA RNA protein nucleotide adenine (A) guanine (G) cytosine (C) thymine (T) uracil (U) deoxyribose ribose base pairing replication transcription mRNA rRNA tRNA translation codon polymerase promoter intron exon mutation nondisjunction Griffith Avery Hershey & Chase Chargaff Franklin Watson & Crick double helix
Goals:
 Washington State Life Science Objectives: Objective 9-11 LS1C Students will know that: "Cells contain specialized parts for determining essential functions such as regulation of cellular activities, energy capture and release, formation of proteins, waste disposal, the transfer of information, and movement." Students will be expected to: "Draw, label, and describe the functions of components of essential structures within cells (e.g., cellular membrane, nucleus, chromosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome)." Objective 9-11 LS1E Students will know that: "The genetic information responsible for inherited characteristics is encoded in the DNA molecules in chromosomes. DNA is composed of four subunits (A,T,C,G). The sequence of subunits in a gene specifies the amino acids needed to make a protein. Proteins express inherited traits (e.g., eye color, hair texture) and carry out most cell function." Students will be expected to: "Describe how DNA molecules are long chains linking four subunits (smaller molecules) whose sequence encodes genetic information. Illustrate the process by which gene sequences are copied to produce proteins." Upon completion of the unit, students will have an understanding that DNA and RNA contain instructions for life on genes, and are involved in protein synthesis, and that mutations cause positive, negative or no effect on genetic variations.
Objectives:
 Students will be able to.... 1. identify the components of DNA 2. replicate a sequence ofDNA 3. identify the components of RNA 4. transcribe a sequence DNA into RNA 5. explain the process of translation 6. utilize the Codon chart to translate a sequence of RNA and 7. describe the role of proteins in cells/body systems 8. identify key scientists involved in the discovery of DNA and its capabilities
Materials:
 Textbook, presentation/lecture material (PPT, Smart Notebook file, or ActiveInspire Flipchart, video clips), paper/manipulatives activities, online activities (http://learn.genetics.utah.edu and http://www.explorelearning.com)
Introduction:
 Students will view video clips about the structure and role of DNA in determining genetic information.
Development:
 (Based on classes that are <60 min) Following the video clips on genetics and DNA/RNA, students will: Days 1-2 1. view a presentation (PPT or Flipchart)about DNA 2. complete an online activity (ExploreLearning.com) about DNA components and replication 3. complete a paper manipulative activity on DNA structure and replication Days 3-4 1. view a presentation (PPT or Flipchart) about RNA and Protein Synthesis 2. complete an online activity (ExploreLearning.com) about RNA components, transciption and translation 3. complete a worksheet activity on RNA transcription and translation Days 5+ 1. Complete online activities using http://learn.genetics.utah.edu (online notes and activities)
Practice:
 Each day will begin with a warm-up/bell ringer to either find out previous knowledge, to practice or to assess knowledge obtained throughout the unit. SMART presentations (using SMART response system remotes)or Flipchart presentations (using ActiVote or ActivExpression remotes) could contain questions that monitor student understanding throughout the unit.
Accommodations:
 ELL students or students with IEPs may require a less rigorous version of the online activities, paper/manipulative activities, and assessments (modified according to their language acquisition or specific IEP goals). GT students can be given additional opportunities to demonstrate their understanding, through more rigorous versions of the previously mentioned items (requiring more application/evaluation/analysis/synthesis). GT students could also be required to perform research on various fields of genetics (DNA fingerprinting, karyotyping, genetic diseases/disorders, genetic engineering of plants and animals, etc.)
Checking For Understanding:
 Individual assignments, quizzes and tests will have an answer key or a rubric provided.
Closure:
 Depending on the scope and sequence of the course, this unit could lead into more genetics (Mendelian), cellular reproduction (mitosis and meiosis), or evolution and natural selection.
Evaluation:
 Warm-ups, assignments, labs, etc. can be marked for completion and accuracy. Traditionally formatted tests can be given to students of all ability levels (with questions modified for specific student needs/abilities). Additional projects for GT students will require specific rubrics based on the type of formal evaluation required/chosen (PPT, poster, brochure, oral presentation, etc.).
Teacher Reflections:
 Questions to consider after the completion of the unit: 1. How well did the students comprehend the key terms from the presentations? 2. Were the students effectively able to demonstrate protein synthesis (from replication to transcription to translation)? 3. How was the pacing of the unit? (Could more activities be used in this time frame? OR Should less activities be used in this time frame?) 4. How affective was the use of online activities versus pencil and paper activities?

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