Lesson Plan : Function and Structure of the Human Body

Teacher Name:
 Dr Dinesh Madhavan
Grade:
 College/University
Subject:
 PE and Health

Topic:
 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURES OF THE HUMAN BODY
Content:
 i) Anatomical terms ii) Body cavities
Goals:
 The aim of this course is to provide the students with the knowledge about the structure and function of the human body that will need in the performance of their daily functions as member of healthcare team.
Objectives:
 1. Able to explain in general the structure and function of the human body. 2. Aware that the normal functions of human body is the result of normal function every system in the body.
Materials:
 1. PowerPoint slide shows 2. Flash presentations 3. Lecture notes 4. Assignments 5. POP Quiz
Introduction:
 i) Define the anatomical terms ii) State the boundaries of four body cavities iii) List the contents of the body cavities
Development:
 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURES OF THE HUMAN BODY TERMINOLOGY AND GENERAL PLANES OF THE BODY ANATOMY Anatomy is the study of the structure or morphology, which includes size, shape, composition, and perhaps even coloration of the body, from the microscopic to the macroscopic. Anatomy can be studied following either a regional or a systemic approach. In a systemic approach, each system of the body is studied and followed throughout the entire body and this type of study is called Systemic anatomy . For example, a study of the cardiovascular system looks at the heart and all of the blood vessels in the body. When this is completed, the nervous system (brain, spinal cord and all the nerves) might be examined in detail. This approach continues for the whole body until every system, including the skeletal, muscular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, lymphatic, and reticuloendothelial systems, has been studied. With a regional approach, each region of the body is studied separately and all aspects of that region are studied at the same time and this type of study is called regional anatomy. For example, if the Thorax is to be studied, all of its structures are examined. This includes the vasculature, the nerves, the bones, the muscles and all other structures and organs located in the region of the body defined as the Thorax. After studying this region, the other regions of the body (i.e. the Abdomen, Pelvis, Lower Limb, Upper Limb, Back, and Head and Neck) are studied in a similar fashion. The various systems of which the human body is composed are grouped under the following headings: Osteology葉he bony system or skeleton. Syndesmology葉he articulations or joints. Myology葉he muscles. Angiology葉he vascular system, comprising the heart, bloodvessels, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands. Neurology葉he nervous system. The organs of sense may be included in this system. Splanchnology葉he visceral system. Histology: The study of the minute structure of the various component parts of the body. Embryology: The study of the human organism in its immature condition, ie., the various stages of its intrauterine development from the fertilized ovum up to the period when it assumes an independent existence. Applied anatomy: The direct application of the facts of human anatomy to the various pathological conditions. Surface anatomy: The appreciation of structures on or immediately underlying the surface of the body. THE ANATOMICAL POSITION The anatomical position is the standard reference position of the body used to describe the location of structures. The body is in the anatomical position when standing upright with feet together, hands by the side and face looking forward. The mouth is closed and the facial expression is neutral. The rim of bone under the eyes is in the same horizontal plane as the top of the 'opening to the ear' and the eyes are 'open' and focused on something in the distance. The palms of the hands face forward with the fingers straight and together and with the pad of the thumb turned 90ー to the pads of the fingers. The toes point forward. ANATOMICAL PLANES : Three major groups of planes pass through the body in the anatomical position . Coronal planes are oriented vertically and divide the body into anterior and posterior parts. Sagittal planes also are oriented vertically, but are at right angles to the coronal planes and divide the body into right and left parts. The plane that passes through the center of the body dividing it into equal right and left halves is termed the median sagittal plane. Transverse, horizontal, or axial planes divide the body into superior and inferior parts. ANATOMICAL LOCATION OR POSITION: Three major pairs of terms are used to describe the location of structures relative to the body as a whole or to other structures . Anterior (or ventral) and posterior (or dorsal) describe the position of structures relative to the 'front' and 'back' of the body. For example, the nose is an anterior (ventral) structure whereas the vertebral column is a posterior (dorsal) structure. Also, the nose is anterior to the ears and the vertebral column is posterior to the sternum. Medial and lateral describe the position of structures relative to the median sagittal plane and the sides of the body. For example, the thumb is lateral to the little finger. The nose is in the median sagittal plane and is medial to the eyes, which are in turn medial to the ears. Superior and inferior describe structures in reference to the vertical axis of the body. For example, the head is superior to the shoulders and the knee joint is inferior to the hip joint. Other terms used to describe positions include proximal and distal, cranial and caudal. Proximal and distal are used with reference to being closer or farther from a structure's origin, particularly in the limbs. For example, the hand is distal to the elbow joint. The glenohumeral joint is proximal to the elbow joint. Cranial or Cephalad (towards the head) and caudal (towards the tail) are sometimes used instead of superior and inferior respectively. Two other terms used to describe the position of structures in the body are superficial and deep. These terms are used to describe the relative positions of two structures with respect to the surface of the body. For example, the sternum is superficial to the heart and the stomach is deep to the abdominal wall. The terms internal and external are used to describe the relative distance of a structure from the center of an organ or cavity; for example, the internal carotid artery is found inside the cranial cavity and the external carotid artery is found outside the cranial cavity. The term ipsilateral refers to the same side of the body; for example, the left hand and left foot are ipsilateral. Contralateral refers to opposite sides of the body; for example, the left biceps brachii muscle and the right rectus femoris muscle are contralateral. The supine position of the body is lying on the back. The prone position is lying face downward. TERMS RELATED TO MOVEMENT: Flexion is a movement that takes place in a sagittal plane. For example, flexion of the elbow joint approximates the anterior surface of the forearm to the anterior surface of the arm. It is usually an anterior movement, but it is occasionally posterior, as in the case of the knee joint. Extension means straightening the joint and usually takes place in a posterior direction. Lateral flexion is a movement of the trunk in the coronal plane. Adduction is a movement of a limb toward the body in the coronal plane . Abduction is a movement of a limb away from the midline of the body in the coronal plane. In the fingers and toes, abduction is applied to the spreading of these structures and adduction is applied to the drawing together of these structures. Rotation is the term applied to the movement of a part of the body around its long axis. Medial rotation is the movement that results in the anterior surface of the part facing medially. Lateral rotation is the movement that results in the anterior surface of the part facing laterally. Pronation of the forearm is a medial rotation of the forearm in such a manner that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly. Supination of the forearm is a lateral rotation of the forearm from the pronated position so that the palm of the hand comes to face anteriorly Circumduction is the combination in sequence of the movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. Protraction is to move forward; retraction is to move backward (used to describe the forward and backward movement of the jaw at the temporomandibular joints). Inversion is the movement of the foot so that the sole faces in a medial direction. Eversion is the opposite movement of the foot so that the sole faces in a lateral direction. BODY CAVITIES The body has two major cavities: The dorsal cavity. The ventral cavity . Each of these is further subdivided into lesser cavities. The organs of any cavity are referred to as the viscera. THE DORSAL CAVITY : The dorsal cavity contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate the body痴 functions. It is divided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the spinal cavity, which contains the spinal cord. THE VENTRAL CAVITY : The ventral cavity contains organs that are involved in maintaining homeostasis or a constant internal environment within small ranges of deviation. The ventral cavity is again divided into; The thoracic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity The thoracic cavity: It is surrounded by the rib cage. The thoracic cavity contains the heart in a pericardial sac referred to as the pericardial cavity, and the two lungs each covered by the pleural membrane referred to as the pleural cavities. A space called the mediastinum is found between the two pleural cavities. It contains the heart, thymus gland, lymph and blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and nerves. The diaphragm muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity The abdominopelvic cavity is the second subdivision of the ventral cavity. It contains the kidneys, stomach, liver and gallbladder, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, and the ovaries and uterus in women. Two other terms are used when discussing the cavities of the body. The term parietal refers to the walls of a cavity. Example: the parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall. The term visceral refers to the covering on an organ. Example: the visceral peritoneum covers abdominal organs. Physiology is the study of how the body functions. The physiology of red blood cells, for example, includes what these cells do, how they do it, and how this is related to the functioning of the rest of the body. Physiology is directly related to anatomy. For example, red blood cells contain the mineral iron in molecules of the protein called hemoglobin; this is an aspect of their anatomy. The presence of iron enables red blood cells to carry oxygen, which is their function. All cells in the body must receive oxygen in order to function properly, so the physiology of red blood cells is essential to the physiology of the body as a whole. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 1. Chemical inorganic and organic chemicals make up all matter, both living and non-living. 2. Cells葉he smallest living units of the body. 3. Tissues揚roups of cells with similar structure and function. 4. Organs揚roups of tissues that contribute to specific functions. 5. Organ systems groups of organs that work together to perform specific functions 6. Person預ll the organ systems functioning properly. HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis is the maintenance of the internal environment of the body. Some examples of homeostasis are blood sugar levels, body temperature, heart rate, and the fluid environment of cells. When homeostasis is maintained, the body is healthy. This is the reason your doctor takes your temperature and blood pressure as part of a routine examination.
Practice:
 1. Take attendance 2. Asses their knowledge about the topic which is planing to teach before starting a class. 3. Make sure all students are listening the lecture 4. Asses they are understanding about the lecture by asking questions 5. Do a POP Quiz about previous class before starting next day class 6. Make a chart about student's knowledge for each students and update regularly.Which is done by collecting marks from each activity.
Accommodations:
 1. Refer text books from the library 2. Use internet to add knowledge about the topic. 3. Study lecture notes and make a concluded chart about the notes.
Checking For Understanding:
 1. Collect marks from each POP Quiz and assignments 2. After finishing a topic, take a feedback from students. 3. If any students are weak in any areas, help them to improve.
Closure:
 1. Give all lecture notes ( Hard copy)and flash objects if any. 2. Evaluate all feedback and assessment. 3. Make necessary action to improve teaching process for next topic.
Evaluation:
 1. Collect marks from each POP Quiz and assignments 2. After finishing a topic, take a feedback from students. 3. If any students are weak in any areas, help them to improve.

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