Lesson Plan : Magic Squares = Unknowns

Teacher Name:
 S. Cahoon
 Grade 3

 Using literature and the topic of magic squares, students will be introduced to finding unknowns.
 Math Key vocabulary: addend, sum, variable, unknown
 The learner will recognize, determine and represent patterns and simple mathematical relationships.
 TLW recognize given symbols as the unknown in a number sentence. TLW solve for non-numeric symbols in problems. TLW create a picture to display solutions for non-numeric symbols.
 Story, Ben Franklin and the Magic Squares, by Frank Murphy Number tiles Copies of magic square 15; one for each student and one overhead (attachment 1) Copies of additional magic squares; one for each student and one overhead (attachment 2) Teacher copy of key Calculators Small counting manipulatives such as unifix cubes for each student.
 Have children sit together for a read-aloud of Ben Franklin and the Magic Squares. Stop reading the story before you get to the explanation of how he created the magic squares.
 Tell the students that they are going to work on number puzzles that have missing parts. On the overhead show a following number sentence: 8 + = 12. Do a talk aloud about how you would solve this problem. Show a count on method such as put 8 in my head and use my fingers to count on 9, 10, 11, 12. The answer is four. Show 12 manipulatives and take away 8 which shows a remainder of 4 . Show how 8 plus 4 equals 12.
 Give students the following number sentence: 4 + = 9. Have them pick a strategy of their choice to solve the following equations. Show an overhead of magic square 15. Explain to students that they will try to figure out the same magic square pattern that Benjamin Franklin discovered in the story. Explain to them that they will only the numbers 1-9 and can only use each number one time.
 For my ESL and low students, pair them with upper level students. Give hint to the lower level students sooner to help them practice their addition tables. Create a list of addends that add to fifteen for help. Have upper level students create an additional magic square with two digit or three digit numbers.
Checking For Understanding:
 Give students the additional magic squares attachment 2. Draw their attention to replacing the symbols with numbers that make the magic square work.
 Display the number sentence 3 + 4 = + 5. Solicit answers from the students and ask them to explain their strategies.
 Based on the level of my students I will look for accuracy in addition or subtraction and then the replacement of the empty box with a variable.

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