### States of Matter Lesson Plan

#### Content

Volumes of solids
States of Matter: solid to liquid, liquid to solid.
Crystalization
Finding the volumes of solids using integration
Matter and Molecules

Integration, Understanding volumes graphically

Definitions: Solid, liquid, crystalize, evaporate,supersaturated.

Children will gather bottles with different liquids in them and also serval solid objects and then they will observe how the liquids react when you transfer them in to the bottles with the liquids in them.

#### Goals / Aims of The Lesson Plan

1.Introduce the idea of the volumes of solids
2.Understand the purpose of rotating graphs about an axis
3.Understand that integration can be used for more than just area
4. Explain the difference between a solid and a liquid.
5.Explain how combining a solid and liquid changes both a solid and a liquid.
6.Explain how heating and cooling solids and liquids change them.
7. Students will be able to observe the traits of a solid and liquid. They will also be able to tell the density of the object.
8. Students discover that each state of matter is different.
9. Students discover the differences of molecules in each state of matter.

#### Objectives

1. Visualize volumes of solid objects
2. Start to understand the integration formula
3. Identify two of the three states of matter.
4. Observe how heating and cooling changes the matter.
5. Investigate and observe how mixtures can be made by combining solids and liquids.
6. Students will be able to identify that all matter contains particles called molecules.
7. Students will be able to distinguish between the movement of moecules in each of the 3 states of matter.

#### Materials and Aids

White board or tablet, candy in identifiable shapes, Hot plate, wooden spoon,sauce pan or pot,goggles, apron, oven mitten, water, sugar, food coloring, flavoring,wax paper,marker,paper tape, magnifying glass,measuring cup, candy thermometer, glass jar, wet string, nail, paper clip.Technology needed- web camera, laptop, projector and screen.

### Procedure

A. Introduction-

1. Today we will understand that integration is not only for finding the area under a graph
2. There may be some candy involved for some of you
3. Students will review the 3 states of matter.
4. Students will be asked to share what they already know about each of the states of matter.

Has anyone ever made their own candy before? Well today for our science lesson we will be making rock candy, does anyone know what that is? Well rock candy is a syrup mixture that looses moisture and forms little crystlas that look like little rock formations. I'm sure if you ask your parents or grandparents what rock candy is they could tell you all about it. what will the color and flavor for the candy be?

B. Development-

1.I will draw a sample of a sphere and demonstrate how something rotates.
2. Teacher will tell students that all matter is made up of molecules.
3. Teacher will use students to demonstrate what happens to molecules in the 3 different states of matter.
4. Students will view the short video on molecules in matter.

First thing we are going to do is gather all our supplies and make sure that we have everything. We need a hot plate, wooden spoon,sauce pan or pot,goggles, apron, oven mitten, water, sugar, food coloring, flavoring,wax paper,marker,paper tape, magnifying glass,measuring cup, candy thermometer, glass jar, wet string, nail, paper clip.Each of you have a piece of string and as well as a paper clip and nail tie one to each end of the string and place them in the jar with the nail stretched accross the top of the jar and the paper clip in the bottom. Place a piece of tape with your name on it on the side of the jar and line them up on the counter at left side of the room according to your tables. Okay to begin I put on my safety gear of goggles, oapron and oven mitten because the mixture will become very hot and we want to be safe, we then begin with mixing four cups of sugar to two cups of water in our pan as you can see on the screen at the front of class. As you watch you will see the sugar crystals dissolve into the water and the mixture starting to form bubbles which will bring it to a boil. At your tables you have magnifying glasses look at the sugar crystals I have given you and write down what you see while we wait for the mixture to boil. Once the mixture is boiling and has doubled in size we cut off the heat and remove it from the burner and add in our flavoring and food color. I will then pour the mixture into each of your jars and we will let them set for seven days without touching them. everyday you will need to look at your jars and draw what you see. At the end of the seven days you will have something that looks like this ( pulls out a premade piece of rock candy that was made using this experiment.) Now that the experiment is over lets go back and break down everything that we did. Can someone tell me the difference between a liquid and a solid? What did you notice about the sugar crystals that we began with and what can you tell me about the sugar crystals in the pieces of rock candy I am passing out. Do not eat them. Good that is correct they are similar because the rock candy was made from the sugar crystals.

C. Practice-

1.Start by drawing the reeses because it is obvious
2.Move on the the other candies
3. students will make lists of solids and liquids and compare and contrast them.
4.Students will assess what liquids can turn into solids and what solids turn into liquids.
5.Students will mix solids and liquids to determine if they are compatible and what the outcome would be if they were heated or cooled.
6. Students will work in groups and arrange the molecules in various states of matter.

D. Independent Practice-

1.Once finished with the candies, draw some graphs on the board and tell them to practice.
2.Have volunteers come up to the board to finish drawing the graphs.
3. Students will label the 3 states of matter
4. Students will distinguish the differences of molecules in each state by creating a model of the molecules in motion in each of the 3 states.

Students will draw what they see developing over the seven day period and predict what they think will happen.They will journal their thoughts on solids and liquids.

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

1.I would also show students the way that solids are formed by rotating about an axis on the computer. There are many programs that allow students to visualize the creation of solids.

2. Small group or 1:1 assistance provided as needed.

F. Checking for understanding-

1.Are there any questions?
2.Assign homework that has students practicing drawing graphs and rotating

G. Closure-

1.Today were learned that we can find volumes of solids by integrating
2. Teacher will ask students to share what they discovered about molecules and matter.
3 2.Tomorrow, we will start with equations and learn how to integrate using the graphs of specific equations

At the end of the seven day period the students will then explain as a group what the process was of making rock candy as well as what the difference in solid and liquids are.

F. Evaluation-

1.student recognition of candy shapes
2.understanding volume by integration

Mini True/False quiz to assess today's understanding. Brief pupils on their ongoing assignment: Over the seven days, pupils will: note down what changes that they see happening as well as keep a journal to demonstrate the changes over time, such as the liquid disappearing and the the crystals forming.