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By: Dr. Ann T. Licata
The following lesson designs demonstrate what the thinking process might entail as a teacher instructs a pupil in the area of phonics. The use of think alouds is a valuable tool for the pupil as well as the teacher. It is during this process of directed thought that concepts are clarified and organized in a logical direction so that the pupil's learning will be facilitated.
Dr. Ann T. Licata is presently teaching future teachers at Mount Saint Mary College in Newburgh, New York. She has taught in the public school system for twenty-five years. During that time, she successfully employed think alouds with the youngsters as they developed their literacy skills.
The Model Lesson Plan
By: Dr. Ann T. Licata
Pupil: ________________________ Teacher: ____________________________
Date: ________________________ Duration of the Lesson: 40 minutes
Curriculum Area: Reading
Topic: Phonics - The reading of /o/ in words, sentences, a paragraph,and story
Grade Level: Grade ____
This lesson is designed to help the pupil decode words containing the letter o when it is followed by a consonant and silent e.
B. Performance Objectives:
1. Given a list of words containing vowel sounds and four sets of phonograms depicting the /o/, the pupil will auditorily discriminate /o/ in the initial and medial positions of paired words by saying a key word and telling whether the beginning and medial sounds in the words sound the same or different for four out of four sets.
2. Given four sets of phonograms depicting the /o/, the pupil will visually discriminate the letters o consonant e pattern in the lists of words by underlining the letters which are the same in all the words.
3. Given a set of words, the pupil will discriminate the letters in the o consonant e pattern using his tactile and kinesthetic senses by tracing and copying the phonogram correctly in four words.
4. Given a set of phonograms and a different initial consonant for each word, the pupil will orally blend the words by substituting the first letter for four out of four sets using a different phonogram for each set.
5. Given four sets of phonograms, the pupil will generalize the phonics rule regarding the phonogram o consonant e by telling me the rule one time without any help from me.
6. Given three sentences to read, the pupil will read the sentences and select words which have the o consonant e pattern by underlining them all correctly.
7. Given a paragraph which contains words having the o consonant e pattern, the pupil will decode those words by reading those words in the paragraph aloud correctly without any help from me.
8. Given a story which contains words having the o consonant e pattern, the pupil will decode those words by reading those words in sections of the story aloud correctly without any help from me.
9. Given a worksheet from a phonics book, the pupil will complete the worksheet which is composed of six incomplete sentences containing choices of words spelled with the letters o consonant e pattern, by circling and writing the correct word into the sentences for at least four out of the five sentences.
C. Materials: reference(s) according to APA format other materials
Review: Before starting the lesson, I will review a phonics rule which was already learned in a previous spelling lesson. I will ask the pupil to complete a page from a phonics book. The spelling words will consist of words which are built using phonograms. The assignment will involve writing in the blank spaces of ten sentences with the correct spelling word from that lesson. If the pupil is able to complete the page with seven out of ten sentences correct, I shall introduce the following lesson. If the pupil does not meet the criterion for accuracy, I shall repeat the lesson involving the review set of phonograms.
Motivation: (Anticipatory Set) I will read a short story with the pupil. The story will be written at the instructional reading level of the pupil (_____). I will discuss the theme with the pupil. I will ask the pupil to retell the story. I will tell the pupil that he did a good job. I will tell the pupil that today he is going to learn how to decode or learn how to recognize new words.
E. Developments and Practices for the Objectives: Plan (Input, Modeling - what you do to fulfill the objectives) Always start with the pupil's STRONG MODALITY
Given a list of words containing vowel sounds and four sets of phonograms depicting the /o/, the pupil will auditorily discriminate /o/ in the initial and medial positions of paired words by saying a key word and telling whether the beginning and medial sounds in the words sound the same or different for four out of four sets.
Development for Objective #1
The teacher will display a colorful visual stimulus depicting the beginning, middle, and end of a picture. The picture could be a snake with long eyelashes, a school bus, or train. The picture could be a drawing on the chalkboard or a poster. On the picture the teacher will label a B on the beginning of the picture, M on the middle of the picture, and E on the end of the picture. The direction of the labels will go from left to right. The teacher will think aloud and model as she pronounces four pairs of words which begin randomly with either the /o/, /a/, or /e/. As she pronounces the words, the teacher will articulate the individual sounds of the words and move under the drawing in synchronization with the pronouncing of the word. For example, as the word Ohio is pronounced, the teacher will stand under the beginning of the drawing when /o/ is said, move to the middle of the drawing when /hi/ is pronounced, and then move to the end of the drawing when /o/ is pronounced. The teacher will use her body to show how the sounds match to the three parts of the picture. The teacher will model the discrimination of one set of words. She will say, "I want to know if the following words begin the same way." She will say, the words oat and aloud. She will say, "I do not think they begin the same way."
Guided Practice for Objective #1
I will verbalize pairs of words containing the /o/ and other vowel sounds in the initial and medial positions. I will tell the pupil to nod his head if the words begin the same way. I will say the pairs of words Ohio, only; Oklahoma, about; only, every; over, ever. I will repeat Ohio and Oklahoma and ask the pupil to say the sound which comes in the beginning of the words. I will ask the pupil if he can tell me the letter for the sound and a word we can remember for the sound. (eg. /o/, o - Ohio)
I will say the following lists of words and ask the pupil to tell me where he hears the /o/. If the pupil cannot do this, I will provide help. hose, nose hole, pole tone, bone, joke, coke rose, those mole, whole cone, phone smoke, spoke.