A Brief Timeline of Ancient History
In reading a brief timeline of ancient history one must take note of the usage of Before Christ (B.C.), also known as Before the Common Era (B.C.E.). Here is a brief timeline of ancient history from 4.5 billion until 1 B.C.
4.5 billion to 100,000 B.C
The Earth is formed followed by the first signs of primordial ocean life. The Homo habilis, or the skillful man, begins to use stone for tools, a sign that the brain is undergoing its first evolutionary expansion. As of 1.8 million B.C., the Homo erectus, or the upright man, has a brain twice the size of the earlier species known as Australopithecines. The Homo erectus leaves Africa while a number settles in South Africa, where the first modern Homo sapiens reside.
100,000 B.C to 10,000 B.C.
The Neanderthal undergoes intellectual evolution, learning the use of advance tools and fire in the process. The later species of the Homo sapiens emerges, bringing to life the Cro-Magnon man. Migrations begin to occur across the Bering Straits towards the Americas. Agricultural settles become permanent in the Old World.
10,000 B.C. to 4,000 B.C.
Development in the communities of the migrated groups happens. Settlements turn into cities. The wheel is invented. Pottery is discovered. Mesopotamian agriculture starts with the realization of advanced methods of land cultivation.
4,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C.
The Egyptian culture begins to develop with the advent of advanced agriculture. The earliest calendars, Jewish and Egyptian, are invented. Phonetic writing starts to appear a few hundred years later. Copper is heavily utilized. The era also marks the ruler of the Pharaohs, indicating the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza and the Sphinx. Egypt, India and China begin to systematize astronomy. Phonetic writings and the 24-character alphabets are invented in Egypt. Monotheistic religion is developed by Ikhnaton.
1,000 B.C. to 600 B.C.
Solomon becomes king after David. The Old Testament is started to be written by the Hebrews. The Phoenicians find Carthage while Greek poet Homer supposedly begins writing the Iliad and the Odyssey. The first Olympics games are held in Greece while Rome is established at the same time. The Acropolis is built in Athens. Lao-tse, the founder of the Taoist religion, is born.
600 B.C. to 300 B.C.
Democracy is established in Athens. Pythagoras, Greek mathematician, Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, and Confucius, legendary philosopher, are born. Various wars happen: the battle of Thermopylae, the battle of Salamis, and the war between Athens and Sparta. The first five books of the Old Testament are finished. Philip of Macedon is assassinated in Greece before being succeeded by Alexander the Great, who conquers Thebes and Jerusalem before dying in Babylon. Socrates is tried and executed. Plato continues his mentor's studies. Euclid begins developing geometry. Aristotle is born.
300 B.C. to 150 B.C
The Mayan calendar is invented in Yucatan. The Romans begin to use gladiators in the arena for entertainment. The famous Greek mathematician Archimedes is born. The Great Wall of China is built. The Maccabean revolution starts its battle against the Seleucids.
150 B.C. to 50 B.C.
Rome kills half a million people after destroying Carthage. Caesar conquers Britain and Gaul, France. Rome undergoes revolution under the lead of Spartacus. Cleopatra becomes Pharaoh. The Chinese invents paper. Famous poets Virgil and Horace are born.
50 B.C. to 1 B.C.
The battle between Caesar and Pompey commences. Herod rules Judea as a Roman governor. Caesar is assassinated by Brutus. Octavian overthrows the rule of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra before establishing the Roman Empire and becoming Emperor Augustus. The Pantheon under Agrippa is constructed. Famous Roman poet Ovid is born.