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Centered on what is now the city of Rome, Ancient Rome stared as a small group agricultural community. Hailed from this Italian peninsula, it has become one of the largest empires to expand in terms of territory and power. Through time, its government had undergone several transformations starting out in monarchy, later made into an oligarchic republic and ended as an autocratic empire. With various conquest expeditions, the Balkans, most of the Mediterranean region and the South-Eastern and South-Western Europe fell to the Roman Empire. Asia-Minor, the Balkans, Syria, Egypt and Greece constitute the remaining Roman Empire. Albeit loss of Egypt and Syria to the Arab-Islamic Empire, Rome prospered for another Millennium until it succumbed to the Ottoman Empire. Byzantine Empire was the use to denote this stage of the empire. Because of their conquest and assimilations of various cultures, Ancient Rome's culture inspired and influenced most of the western countries. Not only in science and social studies, but also in other fields such as, government, art, religion, literature, architecture and language, the ancient Rome had greatly contributed.
The Ancient Rome became a Kingdom, a Republic and an Empire. Archaeological evidences showed that villages around the river Tiber, dates from 8th to 10th century BC. On the 7th century BC, the Etruscans gained control of the region and formed monarchial and aristocratic government. Apparently, after a century the original Latin and Sabine, regained power and made a republic. In this stage they had developed a constitution, mainly involved two important details. The checks and balances series, and the separation of powers. During 4th century BC, Gaul invaded Rome after defeating the Etruscans. Rome fell into Gaul's hands on after a siege on the city that lasted for seven months. The Romans then, had a compromised peace agreement with the Gauls; that is to pay a thousand pound of gold. After a revolt the Romans were able to drive away the Gauls. And after strengthening their military force, they conquered other cities on the Italian Peninsula. A series of battles had been noted in favor of the Romans in this period that ended with the victory of Octavian over Anthony and Cleopatra of Egypt. After taking the name Augustus, Octavian assumed leadership with almost absolute power, thus marking the start of a Roman Empire. The Empire then flourished in terms of territorial expansion, both in the west and part of the globe. The Western empire, ended during the Dark Ages. Africa, Britannia, Italy, Gaul and Hispania became independent kingdoms. Asia-Minor, the Balkans, Syria, Egypt and Greece constitute the remaining Roman Empire that collapsed after Constantinople was captured by, Mehmed II on May 29, 1453.
Roman society varied throughout the transition in government. It was mainly hierarchal in kingdoms; cives or the free-born citizens are on the top, followed by the liberties or freed men with the servi or the slaves falling on the bottom. Free-born citizens were furthermore divided into patricians and plebeians, with the criterion of relativity to the founding patriarchs of a city. Patricians are those with ancestral linkage and plebeians are those who have not. During the republic times this division was disregarded because of plebeians rising to economic wealth and patricians who falls short in treasury. Although, patricians were still regarded with nobility and respect in most fields like science and social studies in the republican times. It was also in the republican period wherein Romans were enlisted in voting tribes. In this division the poorer votes were often neglected. In the Roman Empire, society was simply divided by those who can vote (cum suffragio) and those who cannot (sine suffragio).